Favus (or popularly scab) is a disease caused by the spores of the fungus Trichophyton Schoenleinii, and is accompanied by damage to the scalp and smooth skin. Very rarely can the penetration of disputes in the internal organs be recorded. The disease is most susceptible to people living in countries with a humid and hot climate. At low temperatures, the fungus is not prone to reproduction. Both adults and children can suffer from the disease. The disease is prolonged and has a chronic form.
Causes of Appearance
Such a disease as a favus does not have the nature of appearance at the genetic level, its nature is infectious. Infection with spores of a fungus usually occurs in childhood or adolescence, with women being more affected than representatives of the stronger sex.
A fungus enters the human body as a result of contact with the sick person or his things, for the most part the scab can be considered an ailment that parasitizes relatives. Spores penetrate the skin through small wounds and abrasions that may appear after scratching or as a result of injuries.
Along this, there are risk factors, the presence of which accelerates the development of a favus:
- small amount of vitamins in the body;
- weakened immunity;
- reducing the protective functions of the upper layer of the skin;
- various chronic ailments occurring with intoxication of the body;
- weakening of the body after suffering the disease;
- metabolic disorder.
If at least one of the above factors is present, the fungus would multiply much faster.
Symptoms and Varieties of Favus
Favus is divided into four types, each of which has its own manifestations. Of course, prescribed treatment is also different. A distinctive feature of any kind is a strong weakening of the hair follicle in the place of localization of the crusts. Over time, the hair fades and becomes brittle.
This type can take squamous, skutular or impetiginous form. In the case of the first on the scalp there are congestions, which are characterized by strong flaking of the skin and hyperemia – a strong redness, which is formed as a result of excess blood in the vessels.
The scutular shape is distinguished by the fact that red spots appear on the lesion, on top of which yellow crusts form. Sometimes under them you can see the scars left after the healing skin has again been attacked by an argument. In this form, the infection captures the entire hairy part, but the rows of hair (approximately 1-1.5 cm) remain intact at the edge. Also, the skutular shape is characterized by the fact that when it hair exudes a sharp and unpleasant smell.
In the case of an impetiginous form, pustules (pustules) with characteristic contents are formed. From above, they become covered with crusts, which can eventually fall off, exposing the affected surface.
Favus Smooth Skin
This form is a consequence of the favus of the scalp, although it may occasionally be an independent disease. It is characterized by the appearance of red spots on the head, which, when spore multiplies, merge into a single center. If you start the course of the disease, the affected area will begin to peel off and cause severe itching.
There are also two other types – a favus of the nails and internal organs. In the countries of Eastern Europe almost never occurs.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis of the favus is to obtain a clinical picture, which in most cases may be sufficient. Sometimes laboratory tests are assigned to more clearly identify the type of fungus and to develop the most effective therapy. Also, analyzes will help differentiate the ailment from such diseases as microsporia, lupus erythematosus, pyoderma and trichophytosis.
Treatment should be carried out exclusively in the hospital, this will avoid the spread of infection in the circle of communication of the sick. With it, the hair on the head is completely shaved off, after which the skin is treated with special antifungal drugs – antibiotics and anti-mycotic ointments. Procedures are carried out regularly until a negative test for the presence of a fungus in the skin is obtained. After this, it is necessary to closely monitor the skin and growing hair for a month to prevent a possible relapse.