Microsporia in human: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment


15.06.2019
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Microsporia is a disease whose development is initiated by the spores of the fungus Microsporum. When it affects the skin and hair, in rare cases, fatal changes are exposed to the nails. It has a popular name – ringworm.

Microsporia in General

Fungus of this type is found everywhere and no one is immune from infection with it, but children and adolescents are at a greater risk. In the case of them, an independent recovery may occur, since their body still does not produce large quantities of organic acids that can stop the development of the infection, but in the adult’s body they are contained in maximum concentration. Microsporia in humans is considered the most common pathology after foot fungus.

Infection occurs from domestic animals, often from cats and rarely from dogs. The cause of the pathogen entering the body is exclusively direct contact with an infected pet or its household items (toys, bowls, trays, a place to sleep, etc.).

Microsporia – incubation period

This type of fungus is considered one of the fastest in development, after being ingested, it may be enough for 5 days to begin to actively multiply and provoke the formation of formations. The maximum period may be about 6 weeks, but this is if the person does not create favorable conditions for the development of the fungus.

For comparison, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which causes athlete’s foot, can be in the skin for up to 1 year before it starts to show itself. Approximately the vast majority of fungi also behave, but in the case of microsporum, the situation is different.

Photo of Microsporia in People

Types of Disease and Symptoms

Microsporia in humans is differentiated into two types:

  1. smooth skin;
  2. scalp.

Microsporia smooth skin is characterized by the appearance of a red speck with subtle signs of puffiness. It has clear boundaries and slightly rises above the skin. Over time, it tends to increase until it turns into a large focus of inflammation with purulent vesicles on the feet, crusts and nodules on the skin. Flakes around the edges, causing mild itching. The number of foci does not exceed 2-4, their sizes can reach 3 cm in diameter.

Most often, this type is localized on the skin of the face, neck, shoulders and forearms, much less common on the palms, legs and as exceptions to all rules on the nail plates. If a sick person is prone to allergies, then this must be reported to the diagnostician, as the specialist can easily confuse the symptoms (the fungus will disguise as it and go unnoticed).

Microsporia of the scalp mainly affects children between the ages of 5 and 12 years. Interestingly, it is not diagnosed in children with red hair color. At the very beginning it is characterized by the formation of small scales at the base of the hair, then after a week the hair itself is affected – they become brittle and fragile, often do not grow more than 4 cm.

In most cases, microsporia is represented by 1-2 foci with clearly defined boundaries, each of which can reach 2-5 cm in diameter. Along the edges, screenings (small foci) from 0.5 to 1 cm can be observed. There are signs of hyperemia on the skin (excessive rush of blood in the vessels) and small flaky scales.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnostics, as a rule, is based on clinical data; if a doctor suspects other skin pathologies, additional laboratory tests may be prescribed. Mandatory in the diagnosis of microsporia luminescence of lesions under the Wood’s lamp and microscopic examination of the affected hair.

Treatment is differentiated according to the type of disease. If a smooth skin lesion is diagnosed, antifungal ointments are used:

  1. Sulfuric;
  2. Sulfur-salicylic;
  3. Sulfur tar;
  4. Lamisil;
  5. Clotrimazole;
  6. Triderm;
  7. Terbinafin.

In the case of neglect, combined means with hormones are prescribed.

Microsporia of the scalp is treated with antibiotics, mostly Griseofulvin (125 mg tablets). Also, at the discretion of the doctor may be appointed shampoos Nizoral or Sebozole. The course can last up to 2 months. A complete recovery is considered to be three negative analyzes.

Great attention is paid to the disinfection of the room and things with which the patient is in contact. It is recommended to wear a kerchief for lesions in the headboard, which is washed daily at 90 degrees or boiled and ironed carefully. The same can be done with a pillowcase, a sheet and a duvet cover.

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