Any changes on the skin should be carefully examined by a specialist, as there is a high probability of developing a serious disease and white spots on the body are just the tip of the iceberg. For example, red spots on the skin may indicate the presence of a fungal disease or a severe allergic reaction, but brown spots are almost always associated with aging and hormonal disorders. White, colorless spots, which in most cases look absolutely harmless, are not an exception, but in fact they can mean a decrease in melanin pigment in the cells or the initial stage of lichen-colored lichen. Patients go to the doctor very late, as in almost all cases the rash does not cause any subjective discomfort, only cosmetic.
Causes and Possible Diseases
Melanin is a coloring pigment that is responsible for the skin color of a person. A change in its amount can lead to the formation of depigmented and hypopigmented spots on the body. There are also a number of diseases that provoke the appearance of colorless formations on the skin of a person:
- Vitiligo. It is considered an acquired disease and occurs most often in adults, less frequently in adolescents. The cause of occurrence is closely associated with adverse environmental factors and constant stress. A distinctive feature is the appearance of white spots of a round or oval shape with a size of 0.2-0.4 cm in diameter. They have clear boundaries and are clearly visible on the background of healthy skin, never rise above the surface of the skin and do not appear on their surface flakes or peeling. Colors can range from milky to ivory. Localization of the rash is observed throughout the body, starting from the face and ending with the genitals. In some cases, lesions may occupy the entire back or the entire abdomen. Vitiligo is never found on mucous membranes, palms and soles. Hair in the affected area will fade. Patients never complain of subjective sensations.
- Color lichen. Very common fungal disease, which is characterized by the appearance of white spots on the skin that do not itch and do not hurt. Leading dermatologists claim that the development of color lichen is strongly influenced by a decrease in immunity and hormonal imbalance. That is why it is most often diagnosed after taking antibiotics, during pregnancy and puberty. It is also proved that people suffering from increased sweating, suffer from chubby lichen twice as often. The facts of infection through close contact or personal hygiene are rare, since the contagiousness of this type of lichen is negligible. At the initial stage, several small specks of white color up to 1 cm in size may appear, which over time can merge with each other and form one large lesion. Color can vary from white and cream to yellow-brown. Most often, the rash is localized on the back, abdomen, chest and armpits, rarely they can be found on the face, hands and genitals. Subjective sensations are absent, for a long, chronic, prone to spontaneous regression.
- Syphilis. It should also be remembered that with secondary syphilis on the neck (in the form of a cobweb), bleached spots may also appear, but unlike vitiligo they will be accompanied by additional symptoms localized on the mucous membranes and in the anus region.
With normal and spotted leprosy, white patches of the size of a small coin appear on the skin. The characteristic difference between a conventional leprosy is a complete lack of sensitivity in the lesions, easily verified by a slight needle prick. The spotted form, on the contrary, has strong pain in the area of the rash, which is explained by irritation of the nerve endings.
White spots on the head, especially congenital, may indicate the presence of leucoderma or albinism.
Photo of White Spots on Skin
Diagnosis and Treatment
With the appearance of even small white spots on the body, it is necessary to appear to a dermatologist in order to establish the true reason for the absence of melanin pigment. To eliminate syphilis will need to donate blood. It is also impossible to exclude the connection of the appearance of colorless rashes with liver diseases. In most cases, after successful treatment, they completely disappeared.
Immediately it should be noted that vitiligo is very difficult to treat, especially in children who are contraindicated drugs that affect the metabolism of melanin pigment. In most cases, local therapy (treatment of lesions with alcohol solutions) is combined with physiotherapeutic measures (irradiation of the lesions with ultraviolet light). Often, hormonal preparations and vitamins A and E are also prescribed, but only after prior consultation with an endocrinologist. The prognosis in 90% of cases is unfavorable, since, despite the constantly improving methods of treatment of vitiligo, doctors can only slow down the development of the disease, there is no full recovery. But, vitiligo does not affect the quality of life in any way, hurting him, causing him only cosmetic discomfort.
The versatile lichen is diagnosed not only on the basis of the examination of the clinical picture of the patient, but also of the examination of the lesions under the Wood lamp and Balzer’s iodine test. Under the Wood lamp with chirimatitis, a characteristic glow of spots with dark brown or red-yellow light will be seen. Sample Balzer carried out by treating lesions and healthy skin with 5% iodine solution of iodine. The areas affected by the fungus are stained with more intensely healthy skin, and on the surface of them the points of loosening of the horny layer are clearly visible. Treatment consists only of the use of external funds for 1-2 weeks. It can be both spirit tinctures and sulfur-salicylic ointments. Today, clotrimazole is often prescribed, which is treated with spots 2-3 times a day for 7-10 days.
Prevention of both vitiligo and pityriasis can be only strengthening the immune system, solving problems with the liver, with increased sweating and increased personal hygiene