The state of the body’s immune defenses can vary significantly due to acute and chronic diseases, or simply during seasonal (winter or spring) avitaminosis.
In this case, a weakened body can not resist the increased activity of fungal microflora. And as a result of colds can develop candidal glossitis. This pathology is localized only in the language and most often occurs in childhood or old age, as well as in people with a reduced state of the immune status of the body.
Main Modes of Transmission and Predisposing Factors
The development of candidal glossitis occurs when a combination of several factors that are formed against the background of weakening the body’s defenses. Most often they can be:
- non-compliance with the elementary rules of personal hygiene of the oral cavity;
- injury to the soft tissues of the tongue, due to which fungal microflora penetrates through the wound surface;
- improper care of dentures;
- rare visits to the dentist because of what causes tooth decay, untimely removal of dental roots;
- non-compliance with sterility during artificial feeding (poor sanitization of bottles, soiled nipples and dirty toys);
- mindless use of antibacterial agents, in excess of the dosage;
- as an additional symptom manifested in seasonal allergies;
- as a complication of respiratory disease (bronchial asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia);
- pathological processes associated with impaired hormonal background of the body (thyroid disease and diabetes);
- lack of vitamins;
- AIDS disease causes periodic recurrence of thrush.
Thus, candidal glossitis of the language has two biomechanisms of development:
- Penetration of infection from the outside. It develops as a result of using the same personal items (dishes, poorly washed products, personal hygiene products) with a sick person. Sometimes it can be transferred through a kiss (especially a small child).
- Activation of internal growth processes of fungal microflora colonies. In this case, the pathological process occurs as a result of low immunity.
The Main Features of the Disease
The main clinical manifestation is the appearance of white plaque on the lateral parts of the tongue, or in the area of its root. Its presence is accompanied by an unpleasant smell from the mouth. In addition, as the clinical picture develops, the following symptoms of candidal glossitis occur:
- With a strong weakening of the immune defense, the disease begins with an increase in the temperature index of the body.
- General weakness and fatigue develop, there is a migraine-like headache and dizziness.
- Symptoms of anorexia appear (appetite is partially or completely lost).
- Sometimes there may be a feeling of nausea.
- As the disease progresses, the plaque on the tongue may change color from white to brown. At the same time there is a feeling of an itch and a strong burning sensation. Also a white patina appears in the throat and on the walls of the cheeks.
- Soreness is mild, most patients complain that an enlarged tongue interferes with the process of swallowing and causes difficulty in speaking.
- A symptom of hypersalivation appears (increased salivation).
- Pronounced painful sensations appear when a rash of a small blistering rash develops on the tongue. Its walls are rapidly thinning, which leads to their rupture. On the arising wound surface erosions and ulcers are formed.
- The ability to distinguish tastes is lost, the patient becomes indifferent what to eat.
- Throughout the acute process in the mouth, an acidic taste is noted. Sometimes patients associate unpleasant sensations that resemble excessive consumption of bitter pepper.
The lack of therapy or its holding in full, can lead to the development of the following complications:
- the development of sustainable anorexia, due to changes in taste to food. This situation can cause a large loss in weight, which is a particular danger for the youngest patients;
- candidal lesion of the esophageal mucosa;
- the transition of the disease to the mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the stomach;
- in rare cases, it can cause the development of an obstructive abscess or cellulitis (subcutaneous melting of fatty tissue).
Candida glossitis is a pathological process that can be avoided by observing the basic principles of proper oral care. It is especially important to carry out the rehabilitation of the oral cavity. Caries, pulpitis, periodontitis, remnants of roots are provoking factors in the development of fungal pathogens.
Both men and women are advised to adhere to the rules of an active lifestyle to constantly harden their bodies, improving their immune status and ability to resist infection.